The DIET CURE

By Author

JULIA ROSS

of the The Nutritional Therapy Institute Clinic

(formerly The Recovery Systems Clinic)

Scientific Research on the Addictive Nature of Sugar and the Biological Basis for the Treatment of Overeating.

SUGAR/CARBOHYDRATES AS NARCOTICS:

Intense sweetness surpasses cocaine reward 
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Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. 
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Carbohydrate craving: a double-blind, placebo-controlled test of the self-medication hypothesis. 
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Abuse potential of carbohydrates for overweight carbohydrate cravers. 
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Evidence that intermittent, excessive sugar intake causes endogenous opioid dependence 
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Naloxone, an opiate blocker, reduces the consumption of sweet high-fat foods in obese and lean female binge eaters. 
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THE BRAIN CONNECTION

Evidence of gender differences in the ability to inhibit brain activation elicited by food stimulation 
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Food Cravings, Endogenous Opioid Peptides, and Food Intake: A Review 
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Depression and weight gain: the serotonin connection. 
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AMINO ACIDS STOP FOOD CRAVINGS AND WEIGHT GAIN BY INCREASING THE APPETITE REGULATING NEUROTRANSMITTERS SEROTONIN AND ENDORPHIN

People with eating disorders who restrict their food intake are at risk for multiple nutrient deficiencies
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Research showing that very-low-energy liquid diet reduces L-Trytophan levels and thus my cause relapse after diet induced weight loss.
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Eating behavior and adherence to dietary prescriptions in obese adult subjects treated with 5-hydroxytryptophan. 
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Reward deficiency syndrome in obesity: a preliminary cross-sectional trial with a Genotrim variant. 
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Clinical evidence for the effectiveness of Phencal (five amino acids) in maintaining weight loss in an open label, controlled 2-year study (of 257 post-Optifast users) 
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DL-phenylalanine markedly potentiates opiate analgesia - an example of nutrient/pharmaceutical up-regulation of the endogenous analgesia system. 
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L-Tryptophan with Vitamin B-6 benefits bulimics 
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Pharmacology of enkephalinase inhibitors: animal and human studies. 
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LOW CALORIE DIETING INCREASES FOOD CRAVINGS AND WEIGHT GAIN, ALSO SUPPRESSES THYROID

Stress, eating and the reward system. 
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Multiple types of dieting prospectively predict weight gain during the freshman year of college. 
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Dieting changes serotonergic function in women, not men 
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Serum concentrations of total and free thyroid hormones in moderately obese women during a six-week slimming cure 
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BENEFITS OF A LOW CARB/MODERATE CALORIE DIET

Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. 
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The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. 
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Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities. 
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Low-carbohydrate (low & high-fat) versus high-carbohydrate low-fat diets in the treatment of obesity in adolescents. 
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EATING DISORDERS

People with eating disorders who restrict their food intake are at risk for multiple nutrient deficiencies, including protein, calcium, iron, riboflavin, niacin,79 folic acid,80 vitamin A, vitamin C,81 and vitamin B6,82 and essential fatty acids.83 A general multivitamin-mineral formula can reduce the detrimental health effects of these deficiencies.
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People with eating disorders who restrict their food intake are at risk

People with eating disorders who restrict their food intake are at risk for multiple nutrient deficiencies, including protein, calcium, iron, riboflavin, niacin,79 folic acid,80 vitamin A, vitamin C,81 and vitamin B6,82 and essential fatty acids.83 A general multivitamin-mineral formula can reduce the detrimental health effects of these deficiencies.

Serotonin, a hormone that helps regulate food intake and appetite, is synthesized in the brain from the amino acid L-tryptophan. Preliminary data suggest that some people with bulimia have low serotonin levels.84 Researchers have reported that bulimic women with experimentally induced tryptophan deficiency tend to eat more and become more irritable compared to healthy women fed the same diet,85 , 86 though not all studies have demonstrated these effects.87

Weight-loss diets result in lower L-tryptophan and serotonin levels in women,88 which could theoretically trigger bingeing and purging in susceptible people. However, the benefits of L-tryptophan supplementation are unclear. One small, double-blind trial reported significant improvement in eating behavior, feelings about eating, and mood among women with bulimia who were given 1 gram of L-tryptophan and 45 mg of vitamin B6 three times per day.89 Other double-blind studies using only L-tryptophan have failed to confirm these findings.90 , 91 L-tryptophan is available by prescription only; most drug stores do not carry it, but “compounding” pharmacies do. Most cities have at least one compounding pharmacy, which prepares customized prescription medications to meet individual patient’s needs.

More info on L-tryptophan

Low Plasma Tryptophan Ratios May Cause Weight Gain After Dieting

A recent paper1 reports on nine obese patients who completed a weight-loss program, which involved taking a commercial very-low-energy liquid diet under medical supervision. [Optifast?] At the conclusion of their stringent diet, the obese subjects had lost almost 30% of their initial body weight. The percentage body-fat values decreased almost to that of the controls. The lean body mass (except for one subject who had an unusual increase during weight loss) did not differ significantly before and after weight loss.

The plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios of tryptophan to large neutral amino acids in the obese subjects were, however, low at all times, with these effects persisting after weight reduction. Before weight loss, the subjects had below-normal plasma tryptophan concentrations, with concentrations of the other LNAAs moderately elevated, with the result being a low ratio of tryptophan to LNAAs. After weight loss, there was some reduction in plasma LNAA concentration, but the tryptophan ratio remained low because of persistently low tryptophan concentrations. They found no difference between the subjects and controls in the response of branched-chain amino acids to insulin infusion (uptake from the bloodstream into peripheral tissues). The authors note that obese subjects are often insulin-resistant and that diminished insulin action may cause low plasma tryptophan ratios. Plasma tryptophan ratios are also reported to be below normal in obese subjects, and the ratios may decrease with dieting—a possible reason, the authors suggest, for relapse after diet-induced weight loss.

Breum et al. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction. Am J Clin Nutr 77:1112-8 (2003).

[from Life Enhancement website]